Get Cpu Frequency Linux C

11+) already has PERF built in. I just want to confirm. So, please read this article with some technical. A CPU with a constant, invariant TSC (time-stamp counter). I'm running the program from the command line in Cygwin from XP, and it's cross-compatible with Linux. BogoMips (from "bogus" and MIPS) is an unscientific measurement of CPU speed made by the Linux kernel when it boots to calibrate an internal busy-loop. )Question: How to find the number of System clock frequency: 200. new minimum CPU frequency the governor may select. The output of 'top -H' on Linux shows the breakdown of the CPU usage on the machine by individual threads. With these processors, the TSC ticks at the processor's nominal frequency, regardless of the actual CPU clock frequency due to turbo or power saving states. Linux hackers use the word task as a synonym for process or thread, and so will we. Related Searches to - linux - linux tutorial - How to calculate the CPU usage of a process by PID in Linux from C linux red hat debian opensuse ubuntu arch linux mandrake get link linux computer linux pc linux server linux desktop learn linux red hat linux red hat enterprise linux linux software linux tutorial linux operating system suse linux. If there is anything else regarding this issue, please feel free to post back. How to get CPU frequency in c#. If that doesn't suit you, our users have ranked 46 alternatives to CPU-Z and eight of them are available for Linux so hopefully you can find a. by Donnie Tevault. CPU Core parking is a feature that was introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2. View details and pricing information for the most popular high frequency compute plans. BogoMips (from "bogus" and MIPS) is an unscientific measurement of CPU speed made by the Linux kernel when it boots to calibrate an internal busy-loop. In this article, let us review. 7GHz is very simple - that's the base frequency of your CPU. Find Number Of CPU Cores From Commandline In Linux. After i tried to get some info on CPU frequency with command "cat /proc/cpuinfo" and it showed in the BogoMIPS line the number 666. You can execute the below script to get the processor and memory information. AIX CPU Info There are number of commands to show what are the current number of processors and their information. After getting it to work with the main core components (CPU, motherboard, etc. How to get Number of cpu cores and cpu thread on HP itanium Hello, I would like to know is there any command or c++ api which will give the following cpu information on HP. thats a power saving feature that all modern CPU's have. Generally following is a common approach. This facility is declared in the header file time. Some CPUs may have a variable CPU frequency which makes CPU counter not usable as a timer source. In that section, look for the "CPU Clock Ratio" setting, or something to that. Can anyone tell me. I've covered a number of terminal tools before, including music player, file browser. NOTE: The Power Management SSDT should always be SSDT. Desktop Training - Linux Newbie Temperature and CPU Frequency Control with Linux. Yes, it is okay that on many systems the CPUs are not listed in numerical order -- for efficiency reasons, turbostat runs in topology order, so HT siblings appear together. We can get process information using system environment variables also. Package processor package number -- not present on systems with a single processor package. Following instruction explains how to custermize your raspberry pi to be lower cpu freq at idle. I hope you’ve learned a lot from our introduction into GPU programming with C++. Assuming this does not mean a real-time linux OS, could people give me help with what this could be referring to?. you can see that my server has 8 cores, our script shows usage of each core which i don't want. C-states are numbered starting with C0 (the shallowest state where the core is totally awake and executing instructions) and go to C6 (the deepest idle state where a core is powered off). On my (8-CPU) machine:. Note, however, that some of those processors may not be supported. a guest Apr 1st, 2012 198 Never Not a member of Pastebin yet? Sign Up, it unlocks many cool features! raw download clone. For example, to. So, that;'s it, how you could find CPU info in Linux, strip down the commands according to your need while using within a shell script. CPU Linux CPU (logical processor) number. Please refer to. CPU_ALLOC() returns a pointer on success, or NULL on failure. You can get clock frequency information with the measure_clock param. Is it possible to get total CPU usage as shown in red circle of image ? Thanks. What's the trick. The CPU Frequency Scaling Monitor provides a convenient way to monitor the CPU Frequency Scaling for each CPU. Process descriptor Inside the Linux kernel, each process is represented as a C-language structure, defined as struct task_struct in (Figure 2. Is there a way to find the rate of the ARM CPU clock frequency when the Linux operating system is running? Solution. thats a power saving feature that all modern CPU's have. see the following page from the Linux. CPU Linux CPU (logical processor) number. c) you might be able to get an idea how it's done on Linux. To get a process’ CPU time, you can use the clock function. 2020 internships. For those who wanted to know how many CPU Cores are in their systems, this brief guide will help. If the CPU supports the RDTSCP instruction, so much the better. 2) Go to Window > CPU History. Be careful that the typical command to fully utilize one CPU by doing: cpupower monitor cat /dev/zero >/dev/null Does not work as expected, because the measured output is redirected to /dev/null. -- Scritp to get Processor Info from Registry EXEC xp_instance_regread 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE', 'HARDWARE\DESCRIPTION\System\CentralProcessor\0', 'ProcessorNameString'; -- Script to get CPU and Memory Info SELECT cpu_count AS [Number of Logical CPU] ,hyperthread_ratio ,cpu_count/hyperthread_ratio AS [Number of Physical. CPU-Z is not available for Linux but there are some alternatives that runs on Linux with similar functionality. This article explains. It means when your cpu is idling (when for instance browsing the internet ) your cpu will operate at a lower frequency to save power. From Variscite Wiki. And the reason you can't go beyond 1. 000 cpu MHz : 1200. Is it possible to get total CPU usage as shown in red circle of image ? Thanks. if my system has 8 CPUs and I want to list total usage for all of them, is it possible through a command? I have tried some of the commands like | The UNIX and Linux Forums. raspberry-gpio-python To get started with RPi. 000 //core 0 cpu MHz : 1600. Today, I'm here with a monitoring tool that can visualize. I know how to use QueryPerformanceFrequency, I have used it many times, but all it does is read from the registry. If you need to print it out or just view your CPU details without restarting your PC or using a third party tool, here is how it can be done. Linux and Unix cheatsheet Tuesday, May 28, 2013. Creator: tom zhou Created: 2013-03-06 Updated: 2013-03-08. If it exists, please let me know and I also have interests on it. For this you also need the name of the component which should get measured. 8ghz (I assume max turbo boost clock) even at idle, only when plugged into A/C power. Since both are expressed in Megahertz (MHz), it is an understandable mistake. I'm running the program from the command line in Cygwin from XP, and it's cross-compatible with Linux. C-states control the sleep levels that a core can enter when it is idle. Understanding Linux CPU stats. However, if you are only interested in CPU-related information, there's a dedicated command line utility for that was well: lscpu. : the kernel tells a 1 GHz CPU to operate at max. Raspbian fixes cpu frequency to 700MHz by default. Re: Get CPU usage (%) in a C program Mon Dec 30, 2013 11:49 pm At any given instant, the CPU is either busy running some useful process, or idle because all processes are sleeping or waiting for something. I am using BeagleBoneBlack booted to shell with minimal file-system generated from build-root with Kernel version 3. There are many different possible components, you can find a list here. Mine is xfce4-terminal. Tested okay in my environmentNOTE: ADDED CPU SPEED & BIT WIDTH 12/5/2013!Purpose: To gather the following Computer Info from one or more servers: Name, Type (phys/virt), O/S, Svc Pack, Phys Mem, # CPUs, # Core. To create a 100% CPU load on your Linux PC, do the following. But this is not accurate, because per definition of virtualizing hardware, one can "fake" all the information provided. Flame Graphs can work with any CPU profiler on any operating system. linux proc get cpu usage (5). Package processor package number -- not present on systems with a single processor package. A common misconception is that the RAM frequency is the same metric as the CPU frequency. I believe there has to be some kind of a statically value for the CPU, so that e. I'm using a Debian 8 amd64 machine for benchmarking. Moving CPU model definitions to C code. cpuburn: CPU Stress Tester for Ubuntu Linux January 26, 2017 March 16, 2012 by Gayan If you’re a power user, then having the ability to put your CPU under a bit of stress can be quite useful. Linux Tips & Tricks How to find RAM size, CPU speed and CPU count in Solaris Sparc System 1. CPU_ALLOC() returns a pointer on success, or NULL on failure. h (compatible on most operationg systems), but it does not give accurate results, not even millisecond accuracy. The processor power management (PPM) engine and the scheduler work together to dynamically adjust the number of cores that are available to run threads. To find these details about the cpu on your system can be a bit difficult because the way different commands check them. 66 GHz, not overclocked. I'd like to bring that down to at most 10% of the CPU usage. For DXVK and Vulkan, if you set 4. Install lshw Ubuntu, Debian and Fedora users can get it from default repositories. Some cpu have ability to change frequency over the time, which can cause some trouble to some timing methods. Get CPU stepping in Linux. The core clock (the L2 cache speed on the Raspberry Pi 2) is set with core_freq. The very first thing to keep in mind while searching ways to check usage or consumption of your Linux system resources is whether you are trying to find about cpu usage, ram usage, memory usage or …. But didnt work. The CPU usage is high, but it never seems to hit 100% on any core unless I have the game view tab open. The ondemand (available since 2. In its Web version, eSM is a PHP script which provides a web page containing information such as the operating system, the number of users connected to the server, the system load, CPU, memory RAM, available disk space, bandwidth usage, and especially the port monitoring. works with SMP. If you look at source of procps (vmstat. Look for a category named something like "Overclock Settings". There are quite a few commands on linux to get those details about the cpu hardware, and here is a brief about some of the commands. However, enabling C-states saves CPU power in the event that there are any inactive requests. Here is a Stack Overflow topic discussing the issue: How to access CPU's heat sensors? You can probably find the code you need if you dig into the source code openly provided by the following site: Core temp, fan speed and voltages. There are many different possible components, you can find a list here. CPU Linux CPU (logical processor) number. Disable CPU frecuency scaling on Linux (RedHat and Ubuntu) Let’s see how to disable CPU frecuency scaling on the most popular Linux platforms. It will raise and lower the frequency of your processor depending on a set level of demand being made on the processor at the time. We can get process information using system environment variables also. I can see the frequency with this bash script:. Take, for example, the highest speed offerings from both Intel and AMD. Best Regards, Anna Wang. Recent Intel processors include a constant rate TSC (identified by the kern. Counting background loops The next method is actually a simple advance on the use of the LSA and histogram. I'm writing a simple C++ application which runs continuously. We are simplifying the cloud. -l--hwlimits Determine the minimum and maximum CPU frequency allowed. 6 Be sure to install the version which matches the kernel. you can see that my server has 8 cores, our script shows usage of each core which i don't want. Unfortunately, determining TSC frequency is difficult, and in some cases, e. Make the APIC timer fire an interrupt at every X ticks The APIC timer can be set to make a tick (decrease counter) at a given frequency, which is called "divide value". -f --freq specific frequency to be set. One of this components is ARM which gets you your current clock speed of your processor:. Hi all Please help me how to get CPU Temperature , fan speed and similar information. @The effect seems to be less. After getting it to work with the main core components (CPU, motherboard, etc. You want to make sure your minimum C-state don’t enter the deep sleep states, but also that the CPU governor takes advantage of the full turbo frequency. You should set CPU performance to HPC mode to handle more random, parallel requests by HPC applications. I found 65535 to work well on my machine, but your mileage may vary. I’ve covered a number of terminal tools before, including music player, file browser. Warning: That file was not part of the compilation database. 10 extended it to Ivybridge generation CPUs (3rd gen), and so on and so forth. Today I will post about how to monitor CPU usage by processor in Linux. The CPUFreq core provides the common code infrastructure and user space interfaces for all platforms that support CPU performance scaling. zip C standard library provides clock() function, which can be used to measure the elapsed time. CPU frequency corresponds with the "arm_freq=" setting in /boot/config. And, by itself, it is far from a reliable metric for the total RAM speed. It looks like it's part of. With following commands/tools, you will be able get following information:. linux proc get cpu usage (5). As some one who over clocks which requires turning off speed step I don't worry about running at max frequency all the time, so far no damage to my system. I called this program cpu-stat and its core concept is that it should provide a plain, simple answers when launched. Identify how many cores and threads your CPU has. The caps provided for Geforce 6200 and Geforce 7800 in DirectX is the same, so I have to find other infomation to help the classification, and the GPU frequency. As some one who over clocks which requires turning off speed step I don't worry about running at max frequency all the time, so far no damage to my system. To see what type of processor/CPU your computer system has, use this Linux command: cat /proc/cpuinfo. To clarify, I'm looking for an abstract solution, (one that will not be tied to a specific architecture or OS) which can give me an idea of the operating frequency of the computer that my code is executing on. )Question: How to find the number of System clock frequency: 200. 1 CPU Time Inquiry. 2020 internships. you can see that my server has 8 cores, our script shows usage of each core which i don't want. C-states control the sleep levels that a core can enter when it is idle. can we achieve same usin c/c++ API. With following commands/tools, you will be able get following information:. Starting from Solaris10, the term vCPU has been introduced to refer each computing entity, ( CPU Sockets, CPU Cores per Socket or Hardware Threads per a CPU Core). For those who wanted to know how many CPU Cores are in their systems, this brief guide will help. The PMU was also or even more affected (since it has to provide more voltage when the SoC is. command line to use to disable ondemand in. Below command will give the cpu and memory usage of process in terms of percentage. I have tried with WMI Win32_TemperatureProbe and some other thing. Tested okay in my environmentNOTE: ADDED CPU SPEED & BIT WIDTH 12/5/2013!Purpose: To gather the following Computer Info from one or more servers: Name, Type (phys/virt), O/S, Svc Pack, Phys Mem, # CPUs, # Core. Provided by: linux-tools-common_3. How to get CPU usage of the process using C++ winapi? The PDH API is definitely the way to go. Package processor package number -- not present on systems with a single processor package. The PPM engine chooses a minimum number of cores for the threads that will be scheduled. To get a process' CPU time, you can use the clock function. Please note that desktop power management is not mandatory. Make the APIC timer fire an interrupt at every X ticks The APIC timer can be set to make a tick (decrease counter) at a given frequency, which is called "divide value". Find out my CPU speed and type in Windows or Linux system There are many ways to detect which CPU you are using (AMD or Intel), speed and other stuff such as cache memory etc. AIX CPU Info There are number of commands to show what are the current number of processors and their information. The ps command stands for process status. Join GitHub today. I'll show you two ways to retrieve the processor-speed (frequency in MHz). information about all processor cores, including the P-state driver, the frequency range supported by the processor, the available frequency steps (which are the P-states), the available and current governors, and the current frequency. Hi community, I have a question about i. In fact, the RAM's frequency in MHz has absolutely nothing to do with the CPU's MHz. This will display a floating window with CPU performance: It can be set to to always stay on top of other windows too. I scaled each core's frequency through program A. As a bonus, the performance bars are also shown while Option+Tab'ing through apps. The wmic command in your article doesn't give the total amount of physical memory, it only gives the capacity for 1 memory module. watch -n1 "cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep \"^[c]pu MHz\"" ``` Is there a way to get grep to list by highest MHz value? Since my CPU is a 12 core, trying to find and follow one or two high clocks (while running lightly multithreaded workloads) in a sea of numbers is impossible. What's the trick. Find memory size in Windows. The easiest way to get this information on Linux is to cat /proc/cpuinfo, which lists the system's CPUs in order, providing some infromation about each (such as current frequency, cache size, etc). I have tried Pdh* functions and GetProcessTimes calculations without any success. -u --max new maximum CPU frequency the governor may select. It defines. In a lot of the specs they make particular request for people with "low latency linux" type of experience. Lshw is capable of reporting memory configuration, firmware version, mainboard configuration, CPU version and speed, cache configuration, bus speed etc. Here are some notes on getting CPU frequency scaling working on Linux. Take, for example, the highest speed offerings from both Intel and AMD. Hi all Please help me how to get CPU Temperature , fan speed and similar information. I have a short post in changing CPU frequency & governors from command line on a Linux machine. Find Number Of CPU Cores From Commandline In Linux. All CPU have IMC. The CPU Frequency Scaling Monitor provides a convenient way to monitor the CPU Frequency Scaling for each CPU. The very first thing to keep in mind while searching ways to check usage or consumption of your Linux system resources is whether you are trying to find about cpu usage, ram usage, memory usage or …. In addition, performance-critical code may need to access the CPU counter for its own measurements. The ps command is used to report a snapshot of the current processes. Find memory size in Windows. I'm running the program from the command line in Cygwin from XP, and it's cross-compatible with Linux. you can see that my server has 8 cores, our script shows usage of each core which i don't want. It gives the total amount of time a process has actively used a CPU since some arbitrary event. Take, for example, the highest speed offerings from both Intel and AMD. In this guide, we will narrow down to the CPU/processor, and show you various ways of extracting detailed information about your machine CPU. Hi guys! I need the the GPU frequency information to determine the capability of Graphics Card and to classify them to different grades. Flame Graphs can work with any CPU profiler on any operating system. I'm using a Debian 8 amd64 machine for benchmarking. Thank you. However, if you are only interested in CPU-related information, there's a dedicated command line utility for that was well: lscpu. I don't know whether linux provides the mechanism to notify the application when the processor enters an actualcore C state. For those who wanted to know how many CPU Cores are in their systems, this brief guide will help. ), I started looking at the NVIDIA GPU and found that there don't seem to be any APIs for getting temperature sensor data from the device (unless I use nouveau drivers) I've tried looking up xnvctrl, but I can't find a library reference or source code for it. 12) are governors based on in kernel implementations of CPU scaling algorithms: they scale the CPU frequencies according to the needs (like does the userspace frequency scaling daemons, but in kernel). Get CPU frequency (Linux platforms - /proc/cpuinfo) - cpu_freq. Could anyone give me a hint where I could find information about my CPU temperature (and maybe also CPU usage, but I haven't yet searched on that one). 10 extended it to Ivybridge generation CPUs (3rd gen), and so on and so forth. : the kernel tells a 1 GHz CPU to operate at max. Raspbian fixes cpu frequency to 700MHz by default. And, by itself, it is far from a reliable metric for the total RAM speed. Sar is part of the sysstat package. The processor power management (PPM) engine and the scheduler work together to dynamically adjust the number of cores that are available to run threads. In Windows, how can I get to the CPU monitor that the article talks about? I am not sure how to find the task manager. -d--driver Determines the used cpufreq kernel driver. It can however, support the several generations of frequency scaling interfaces in the kernel. Here is a preamble. Learn how to enable the Linux CPUfreq subsystem, get instruction on C and P states, and determine which of the five in-kernel governors you need to boost power efficiency on your system. Most unstable configurations have an SDRAM clock speed of 500 MHz or higher, or a CPU speed higher than 1100 MHz. The benchmark is required to maintain the data flow of the original source code (to prevent compilers from optimizing away the benchmark). After getting it to work with the main core components (CPU, motherboard, etc. Tested okay in my environmentNOTE: ADDED CPU SPEED & BIT WIDTH 12/5/2013!Purpose: To gather the following Computer Info from one or more servers: Name, Type (phys/virt), O/S, Svc Pack, Phys Mem, # CPUs, # Core. Since both are expressed in Megahertz (MHz), it is an understandable mistake. Find out my CPU speed and type in Windows or Linux system There are many ways to detect which CPU you are using (AMD or Intel), speed and other stuff such as cache memory etc. ) in real time. CPU-Z is not available for Linux but there are some alternatives that runs on Linux with similar functionality. I don't know if MS Windows implements something comparable to the tickless feature of Linux, because there are lots of tools for Windows that can calculate the cpu frequency quite accurately. The details about the processor that we shall be talking about include, number of cores, availability of hyper threading, architecture, cache size etc. I found 65535 to work well on my machine, but your mileage may vary. Linux hackers use the word task as a synonym for process or thread, and so will we. C++11 offers a convenient method to measure real time, but not CPU time, through the library. , we can block for minimum 1 jiffies whether in the kernel OR user space. Please note that desktop power management is not mandatory. works with SMP. NOTE: The Power Management SSDT should always be SSDT. In typical usage, you call the clock function at the beginning and end of the interval you want to time, subtract the values, and then divide by CLOCKS_PER_SEC (the number of clock ticks per second) to get processor time, like this:. 66 GHz, not overclocked. timecounter. Find Number Of CPU Cores From Commandline In Linux. How to create a 100% CPU load in Linux. Could anyone give me a hint where I could find information about my CPU temperature (and maybe also CPU usage, but I haven't yet searched on that one). -f --freq specific frequency to be set. CPUPOWER-FREQUENCY-INFO(1) cpupower Manual CPUPOWER-FREQUENCY-INFO(1) NAME cpupower frequency-info - Utility to retrieve cpufreq kernel information SYNTAX cpupower [ -c cpulist ] frequency-info [options] DESCRIPTION A small tool which prints out cpufreq information helpful to developers and interested users. Get current clock frequency. Originally, CPUs had a single core. Since both are expressed in Megahertz (MHz), it is an understandable mistake. For these I use an easy Oracle PL/SQL based. (On some architectures, this is done via an implementation in the vdso(7). Package processor package number -- not present on systems with a single processor package. Reading /proc/cpuinfo seems like quite a cheap solution, but I really can't think of any better way to get the cpu frequency. Frequency scaling. Make the APIC timer fire an interrupt at every X ticks The APIC timer can be set to make a tick (decrease counter) at a given frequency, which is called "divide value". On x86, I could use the rdtsc instruction to get the time stamp counter, wait a second (sleep(1)), read the counter again to get an approximation on the CPU speed, and according to my experience, this value was close enough to the real CPU speed. However, once you clear this threshold, the GPU is dramatically faster than the CPU. In this series, earlier we discussed about find command, crontab examples, grep command, history command, ping command, and wget examples. Hyper-threading is no substitute for additional cores, but a dual-core CPU with hyper-threading should perform better than a dual-core CPU without hyper-threading. Some CPUs may have a variable CPU frequency which makes CPU counter not usable as a timer source. 1 CPU frequency and voltage scaling code in the Linux(TM) kernel 2 3 4 L i n u x C P U F r e q. 1) How to Find Top Memory Consuming Process in Linux Using the ps Command. How to get CPU frequency in c#. Hi, How can I find total CPU usage in percentage? e. Following instruction explains how to custermize your raspberry pi to be lower cpu freq at idle. Flame Graphs can work with any CPU profiler on any operating system. intel_pstate is a part of the CPU performance scaling subsystem in the Linux kernel (CPUFreq). A great visual representation of the CPU information and how some devices are connected through the PCI-E bus. On GNU systems, that event is the creation of the process. # ubuntu, debian $ sudo apt-get install lshw # fedora, centos. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. I’ve covered a number of terminal tools before, including music player, file browser. It would not be reasonable to keep max cpu freq for the usage which doesn't requires full cpu power at all times. I hope you’ve learned a lot from our introduction into GPU programming with C++. Desktop Training - Linux Newbie Temperature and CPU Frequency Control with Linux. new minimum CPU frequency the governor may select. Processor frequency specifies the operating frequency of the CPU's core(s) in MHz. The PMU was also or even more affected (since it has to provide more voltage when the SoC is. If you need to print it out or just view your CPU details without restarting your PC or using a third party tool, here is how it can be done. We are simplifying the cloud. AIX CPU Info There are number of commands to show what are the current number of processors and their information. The Kernel ignores C-state info from the BIOS and just applies a C-state on it’s own. I don't know if MS Windows implements something comparable to the tickless feature of Linux, because there are lots of tools for Windows that can calculate the cpu frequency quite accurately. works with SMP. Hi , I am trying to find out the Speed of the CPU while it is in 87. On x86, I could use the rdtsc instruction to get the time stamp counter, wait a second (sleep(1)), read the counter again to get an approximation on the CPU speed, and according to my experience, this value was close enough to the real CPU speed. Let's say you want to incorporate what ps does. After getting it to work with the main core components (CPU, motherboard, etc. -d--driver Determines the used cpufreq kernel driver. Adblock detected 😱 My website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to my visitors. I've never found GetProcessTimes() helpful myself. * * Use a valid CPU number if you want to bind the kthread worker * to the given CPU and the associated NUMA node. For these I use an easy Oracle PL/SQL based. CPU frequency corresponds with the "arm_freq=" setting in /boot/config. gprof, Valgrind and gperftools - an evaluation of some tools for application level CPU profiling on Linux. Hit CTRL-c to terminate the command and get the measure output displayed. In a previous article, we put together a list of 10 useful commands to collect system and hardware information in Linux. Find Number Of CPU Cores From Commandline In Linux. Frequency scaling. Based on kernel version 4. Using sar you can monitor performance of various Linux subsystems (CPU, Memory, I/O. Not all of the information is available in one place; however, if you know where to look, you can discover quite a lot of interesting data. In an asymmetric core frequency deployment model, certain cores run at higher frequency and the remaining cores run at lower frequency. See the Flame Graphs main page for uses of this visualization other than CPU profiling. by Donnie Tevault. Best Regards, Anna Wang.